• Ecosystem Factors
    • Habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation within the Chesapeake Bay watershed
    • Habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation at other ends of the Atlantic Flyway population’s range
    • Food availability (which is affected by competition and proximity to developed or otherwise disturbed lands)
    • Shoreline disturbance (e.g., due to dredging or development)
    • Pressure from invasive species
    • Pressure from climate change (including sea level rise, floods, salinity changes and salt marsh migration, large storms and shifts in migration patterns or wintering range)